“Holmes would never have called himself a pragmatist; he associated the term with a desire to smuggle religion back into modern thought under a pseudo-scientific cover. But his belief that life is an experiment, and that since we can never be certain we must tolerate dissent, is consistent with everything James, Peirce, and Dewey wrote. What Holmes did not share with those thinkers was their optimism. He did not believe that the experimental spirit will necessarily lead us, ultimately, down the right path. Democracy is an experiment, and it is in the nature of experiments sometimes to fail. He had seen it fail once.”
— Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club
Never has democracy and pluralism been so fragile. As Hannah Arendt reminds us: in order to stem the tide of evil, we should be thankful for the peaceful consciousness we already have.